The derailleur is not extended. The cable tension seems ok. What could be the problem?
It seems like your derailleur is mounted at an improper angle. Check out this picture for reference:
You can see how the part that says "Claris" is pretty much horizontal in the photo, whereas on your bike it's pointing 45 degrees down. Try loosening the mounting bolt a little, and then rotating the derailleur mount counterclockwise as to replicate the above picture. Also, check that the B-stop/B-screw (as applicable) is butted up against the little tab on the derailleur hanger. Right now, I'd imagine there's quite a large gap.
The problem is a derailleur awkwardly oriented in low/low gear such that the bottom part of the chain almost rubs the upper pulley (2). The chain wasn't worn, if I'm reading it correctly (6,7). And replacing the slightly bent hanger did not solve the problem. It has been suggested that the derailleur was mounted at an improper angle, and that the body should be horizontal. But the photo taken for comparison is not in low rear gear. Tilting the body horizontally manually just makes the chain slack (1). So I removed a chain link, and that (seems to have) solved the problem (3). (4) and (5) show front gear on high, and with B-screw tight and loose respectively (the latter seems to put less tension on the derailleur).