The answers from @Criggie and @Michael provided enough keywords to find a comprehensive overview, the Tire code Wikipedia article. (Which seems obvious in hindsight, but somehow managed to evade both me and the answerers apparently.)
37/110-622 26B is an ISO metric tire code in the form of
nominal_section_width/aspect_ratio-metric_diameter load_indexSpeed_rating. This code type is usually used for automotive tires. I suspect that the automotive code is added because this tire is meant for e-bikes, @Criggie was able to identify it as a Schwalbe Energizer Plus.
The 'nominal section width' and 'metric diameter' are obvious and have the same meaning as in the
110 means an aspect ratio of 110% of the sidewall height to the nominal section width.
It is possible that
- is used to indicate this is a cross-ply tire, in this position you have "an optional letter indicating construction of the fabric carcass of the tire". If it was a radial tire, as most car tires are, you would have an
R here instead. It is also possible that it is simply meant as a separator.
The load index stipulates the maximum weight the tire can carry.
26 means a weight of 95 kg per tire (not in the table on Wikipedia).
The speed rating is a code from
A8 and then
Z that indicates the maximum speed at which the tire can carry the load specified in the load index. A
B rating means 50 km/h.
The page also has a list of additional marks and specifies for
M/C: "Only for motorcycle fitment". Calling an e-bike a motorcycle seems weird to me... but Schwalbe is better safe than sorry I guess.