In 2021 Julian Alaphilippe, rather than attempt to win the stage for himself, and knowing that he can very well be a contender, assisted instead Mark Cavendish (by leading him—letting him draft—to within sight of the finish line).
In 2022 Wout van Aert, one of three very strong cyclists in the same team at the Tour, went for the win himself, foregoing an assist to either Jonas Vingegaard or to Primož Roglič.
Under what circumstances is a domestique a rebel (or even a traitor)?
Does the domestique have to request permission for this rebellion? Is this to be done ahead of time or on the spot? (Are riders even equipped with microphones and transmitters, or can they only listen to the directeur sportif?)
For the record, my objective from the question is to understand the sport, not to criticize WvA, nor particularly to admire JA's restraint.