They do exist, at least in concept. Here's a patent for the design dating from 2013.
It seems to be a design element in some fatbikes too, purely because of the width of the large tyres used there.
This photo also shows just how far out the rear derailleur is with this design, well-past the centerpoint of the pedal. The rear mech is therefore more exposed to damage, so if you do this, consider a derailleur that "tucks into" itself more, or even an old-school bash-guard on your expensive derailleur.
Googling up phrases like "zero dish rear wheel bicycle" and "offset rear triangle bicycle frame" returned these three Specialised MTB frames from around 2010
Specialized has been rocking the asymmetrical rear ends on BigHits, Demo 8s and later P.bikes.