This answer is based on the documentation published here, from which the picture is taken.
LinkGlide is technically a new tooth profile and sets the principles described below. There are currently two product lines using LinkGlide: CUES and the Deore lines (Deore M5130 + Deore XT M8130/M8150). CUES and the Deore (XT) components with LinkGlide are interchangeable, provided the key metrics (max sprocket size and number of speed) match.
Except in 12-speed systems, where SRAM has introduced the Flattop chains and Shimano the Hyperglide+, compatibility between chains, chainrings and cassettes is based on the principle: the physical dimensions of the chains vary depending on the number of speeds, and cassettes and chainrings are designed around these physical dimensions. With LinkGlide, only 11-speed chains are used, even for 9- and 10-speed systems. It's a standard 11-speed chain, and can be used interchangeably with non-LinkGlide systems.
Cassette design (sprockets pitch and position)
LinkGlide cassettes, being based on the same chains, have all the same spacing for sprockets. The absolute position of the smallest sprocket remains the same (compared to the center of the bike), so it can be inferred that an 9-speed cassette is literally an 11-speed cassette with the two largest sprockets removed. Provided that the number of tooth match, an 11-speed cassette can then be used on a 9-speed system, but the derailleur won't be able to reach the largest sprockets.
11T and 13T sprockets are the same for all cassettes (available in 2 colours). Given these are often worn first when used on e-bikes (as e-bike riders tend to have lower cadences), they can then be replaced separately, and it's good to know that one spare part can work with all cassettes.
Cable pull/pull ratio
Cable pulls and ratios are different from non-LinkGlide systems, so LinkGlide/CUES derailleurs need to be used with LinkGlide/CUES shifters. Shimano doesn't formally indicates whether the 9-, 10- and 11-speed components use the same pull-ratios and cable pulls, but given the sprocket pitchs are constant and some derailleurs work for 10- and 11-speed (U6000), it's likely.
CUES uses known Hollowtech II cranks (upper ranges) and squared taper types (lower ranges) and a new design (called 2-Piece, for mid-range) as well. With Hollowtech II cranksets, the axle is attached to the right arm, that also has the chainrings. The new "2-Piece" design uses the same axle dimensions (24mm), but the axle is attached to the left arm. Preload bearing is then done on the right side. Shimano recommends to use newer bottom brackets (MT501/MT801), that are designed to accommodate with axles inserted from both sides.