I'll add a few things in addition to @Criggie's answer:
Power meter. It was mentioned in the comments, but you really don't know if you produce more power pushing a bigger gear with more force at lower cadence than you produce with a smaller gear at a higher cadence unless you can measure it.
Expand your usable torque range. Everyone knows about things ...
I suspect it depends on your personal ability to change gears while sprinting. That has two-parts.
Can your bike's transmission drop the chain from one cassette cog to a smaller cog while under high load? With brifters this is much more accessible, but back in the day noone would have changed gear with a downtube shifter during the sprint.
Can your ...
Sprinting is usually a (very) short time effort combining high power and maximum speed, per se excluding each other in normal cycling. The idea is to combine a very high cadence and the highest wattage on the pedals in a totally anaerobic effort lasting seconds or 200-250m.