Yes the wheel should fit assuming you have a 'normal' road bike fork installed. I've built maybe a 200 bikes and never had the front wheel spacing be an issue (only axle diameter was an issue when trying to install solid 10mm axle wheels into quick release forks (the solid 10mm axle won't fit in them).
If the spacing does differ a tiny bit you should be able to get away with it by bending the fork legs outwards a bit whilst installing the wheel (keep in mind this might be approx 1mm difference, so it's elastic deformation aka non-permanent bending).
The 2mm difference between your measured spacing and Sheldon brown's suggested standard size shouldn't be an issue. If the wheel is a tiny bit too wide you bend out the fork 2mm (elastic deformation once again), if it's a tiny bit too narrow you can clamp it down using the quick release or nut (if using solid axle).
Even with carbon forks this amount of flexing (when installing the wheel), shouldn't be an issue.
Regarding what model/year bike this is. I wouldn't know but it shouldn't matter if your question is only about front wheel compatibility. Some older bikes use 27 inch wheels but assuming you have the original fork installed on the bike (since the rear wheel you currently have installed is 28" and appears to align just fine with the brake pads of your current calipers) any 28" front wheel should be compatible whilst keeping your original brakes. You might need to adjust your brake pads a bit (their height) after installing the new wheel.