The trailer wheels have their own axle that stays in place via a spring-loaded ball bearing.
(They are quite different from the various axles usually found on bicycles themselves; those have some kind of bolt or clamp at both ends and go into dropouts.)
They’re described in wikipedia
Most trailers have a separate axle for each wheel, like those used on a bicycle. These separate axles usually mount directly on the frame using either threaded nuts, a quick-release mechanism, or some press fit arrangement.
and in this question
...a single sided wheelchair hub. They are light and designed so the wheels are easily removable, which is handy for a trailer that will be packed away often.
but is there an accepted name or term?